Geomythology: This comprehensive geomythology investigation utilizes a unique tectonophysics model to provide a new interpretation of Plato’s Atlantis and its potential relationship to Egyptian myth. It demonstrates how a paradigm shift—from a sunken island to one uplifted—can help explain the mystery and could provide previous unknown lost knowledge of ancient human history that challenges current widely held conceptions. For answers to many frequently asked questions, click the FAQs tab in the right margin.

A growing number of enterprising geologists are beginning to embrace analytical mythology as a tool in their search for field evidence of natural cataclysmic events that may have occurred in ancient history and prehistory. This fledgling field is called geomythology. In our comprehensive geomythology investigation, we will begin by asking a rather provocative question concerning a common interpretation of the most popular and well known of all myths; the myth of a sunken island transcribed by Plato (Greek to English translations of Plato’s Critias and Timaeus dialogues used in this study are by Benjamin Jowett, 1871. Excerpts from his works are noted in quotation marks).

What if Plato’s Atlantis didn’t sink, but rather, only appeared to have sunk and actually rose instead? Would this paradigm shift–from an apparently sunken island to one uplifted–still fully comply with Plato’s detailed descriptions and might it help to solve the mystery? Can the application of this new geomythological hypothesis provide compelling physical evidence to support not only the historicity of Plato’s lost Atlanteans, but also reveal the exact location of their legendary seaport, Atlantis, as well? To answer these questions and many more, we must first look at a geophysics model of the general area Plato described to gain an understanding of the tectonic forces that could have been the source of the seismic action associated with the catastrophe. And, with this geophysics model as our template, we will then follow the virtual map Plato left behind (much as Homer’s descriptions were followed by Heinrich Schliemann for Troy and Robert Bittlestone for Ithaca) to locate the site of the once powerful and influential cultural center known to the Greeks as Atlantis and to the early pre-dynastic Egyptians as Bakhu of Zep Tepi . The results from this analysis are intriguing and could inspire constructive debate among scholars from a wide variety of disciplines. Indeed, we may find that events are not always as they appear and truth is often stranger than fiction.

Did Atlantis sink or was it actually uplifted during the catastrophe?

Plato describes nearly unfathomable destruction from “violent earthquakes” lasting “a single day and night” which, according to his dating at about 11.6k BP, was alleged to have occurred at a distant point in time now known to be consistent with catastrophic climatological changes accompanying the last glacial retreat of the Pleistocene ice ages. This point in geologic time is known as the end of the Younger-Dryas (YD).

The YD was apparently terminated about 1,400 years after it arrived, as measured through several proxies, by a sudden rise in average atmospheric temperature marking the birth of the much warmer Holocene we are experiencing today. Further, the enigmatic YD began about 12.8k BP with similarly perplexing cooling climate changes accompanied by various proxies, including a carbon matt and a nanodiamond distribution plume (C. R. Kinzie et al, Journal of Geology 122(5):475-506.September 2014). The two sudden climate changes so closely connected in time, one cooling another heating, are not unprecedented, but they do stimulate scientific curiosity, and beg the question of correlation in some way.

While several scientific teams are searching for the causes of the catastrophes associated with the turbulent arrival and disappearance of the YD, there is general agreement that the disasters were probably initially on a hemispheric scale and could have resulted from the shock-wave of effects, including rapid atmospheric cooling/heating and severe seismicity, associated with several potential forms of extraterrestrial (ET) or cosmic impact such as comets, asteroids, meteorites, or cosmic forces consisting of high-energy accelerated particles such as a concentrated solar flare.

Though causation of the catastrophe that initiated the Holocene continues to elude researchers, if we assume Plato’s accounts of the earthquakes are accurate, such extreme seismic activity could have been caused by huge upheavals in the Earth’s crust, far exceeding mere meters of uplift or subsidence that result from earthquakes in recent centuries which last only a few seconds, but still have horrific effects. With a need to define the dynamic, we look in the field of geophysics to find that there is a relatively slow tectonic process known as epeirogenesis, whereby large areas of the Earth’s crust gradually heave and subside more or less as a uniform body. Although a rather slow process, this phenomenon can be generally applied to help establish a framework for the sudden unprecedented crustal action suggested by Plato.

Figure 1
Figure 1

The tectonic model shown in Figure 1 (image on left, click to enlarge) is a cross-sectional view of Earth’s crust in the Mediterranean region looking northwest that depicts the catastrophe scenario and demonstrates the principle of an abrupt continental upheaval. This model takes into account that the Sahara was wet during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition, it wasn’t until about 7,000 years ago that it began its most recent aridification. The question is, how wet was it at the time ascribed to the Atlanteans? That question is still under diligent study today, but there is already general agreement that many large lakes and reed filled swamps covered vast areas at the time. If for a moment we assume that the strait at Gibralter was closed, as it had been about 6 million years earlier, and that the western Sahara desert was actually a former glacial shallow sea, which was itself continuous with the Mediterranean Basin (as indicated in Figure 1, let’s call the unified body the Saharan-Atlantic Sea for discussion purposes), then the model clearly shows it is possible ATLANTIS DID NOT SINK, it only appeared to have sunk and was actually uplifted along with a large portion of north and northwest Africa. Before such an uplift, formation of the Saharan-Atlantic Sea could have been made possible in part by increased water flows from both the central Saharan watershed intermittent during the Late Pleistocene and the glacial rivers draining meltwaters from the Eurasian Plate due to a steeper gradient toward the plate boundary margins in the Mediterranean basin, the volume of each of which would then exceed current models.

During a sudden upheaval of this magnitude, which would have coincidentally ripped open the proposed closed strait at Gibraltar, the expansive Saharan-Atlantic Sea would have quickly drained in vast flows from the top of the uplifted African Plate, flooding down into the waters of the Mediterranean basin (Fig.1; #2). This uplift would have also caused a powerful tsunami, perhaps even a mega-tsunami, to race northward colliding with the northern coast, inundating and destroying all settlements in its path, including ancient Athens. The tsunamic flooding would have receded with such current into the Mediterranean basin as to denude the fertile soils from large swaths of the northern coast, subsequently commingling them with drainage from the African plate, which then flowed together through the newly opened strait into the Atlantic basin as the dynamic settled; the heavily laden waters possibly contributing to the formation of the Spartel mud bank that is dated similarly and which may conceal aggregates from the violent opening of the strait. Simultaneous with these events, ancient Athens would have been left submerged in the newly formed modern Mediterranean Sea (Fig.1; #3). In support of this aspect of our theory, Plato did in fact indicate that ancient Athens was destroyed by the same catastrophe as Atlantis, noting of Athens that “all the richer and softer parts of the soil, having fallen away, and mere skeletons of the land being left” and “the Earth has fallen away all round and sunk out of sight”.

For the sailors who later ventured toward Atlantis and witnessed the aftermath, the exposed seafloor of the formerly navigable sea on the African continent would have caused an unavoidable illusion suggesting the island sank–depositing its dissolved soils into the sea rendering it forever closed to sailed passage. They would have only found “a shoal of mud…impassable and impenetrable” which they naturally assumed “was caused by the subsidence of the island” since the illusion was entirely convincing. These ancient mariners would have had no way of knowing that the former island was actually uplifted by an extraordinarily rare rolling and tilting adjustment of the African Plate, exposing the sea-floor of the former Saharan-Atlantic; and that the city itself was beyond the horizon rendering invisible its existence in the distance (Fig. 1; #3). So, these adventurous sailors would have reported to others what they believed they saw, which was much later chronicled by Plato. Although somewhat counter intuitive, this model shows that it is possible for Atlantis to have been uplifted and still fully comply with Plato’s descriptive requirements. The model also could help to explain why Atlantis hasn’t already been found – – no one was looking in this location and accidental discovery would have been hindered since, over thousands of years, ruins in this area would have naturally been covered by many meters of sand as the arid conditions began to prevail.

Now that we have a working theoretical model, we must next ask the question, are there adequate terrestrial forces alone acting upon the tectonic processes of the Earth’s crust to cause such a wide-spread, large-scaled rapid epeirogenic uplift? Or, do we actually need to add significant down-thrust impact forces from an unknown ET prime-mover into our equation, in a manner similar to the investigative teams looking for the catastrophic causes of both the beginning and end of the Younger-Dryas, to obtain the accelerated form of epeirogenesis ?

Al Jafr Basin: Impact Evidence of Solar EMD?

Al Jafr Basin: Terrestrial Impact Evidence of Solar Electromagnetic Discharge?

Geomythology: Evidence of High Velocity/Low Mass Impact? In the Greco-Egyptian myths, the powerful elements of Atlantis-Bakhu’s destruction, the wrath of gods Zeus and Ra-Sekhmet, can be understood to have an extraterrestrial origin delivering a scorching hot, high-energy impact upon the surface of the Earth. WRL investigations uncover a potential impact site for the high-energy discharge, along with its proposed measurable stellar source, forming the Al Jafr depression in Jordan.

The following note on accelerated epeirogenesis appears at the end of the Atlantis-Bakhu Project and may serve as a prologue to the hypothetical geomythology argument focusing attention on the Sun as source of the destruction elements common to many Mediterranean myths.

Note on accelerated epeirogenesis: You will remember, it was from the Eye of Sun god Ra in the Egyptian tale of the Celestial Cow, that Sekhmet, a powerful and violent feminine aspect of the Sun (Ra), was sent to Earth with a vengeance to destroy insubordinate humanity. Sekhmet’s strike was said to have scorched the Earth with such force as to have nearly killed all of humanity. The descriptive mechanics embedded in the myth are reminiscent of Earth’s atmospheric lightning, an electro-static discharge (ESD), but on a much larger scale. At first blush, the only local energy source within our solar system that could be potentially capable of generating such a large electromagnetic discharge (EMD) would have to be our star, the Sun. If such a theoretical solar EMD, something natural resembling a rather large concentrated lightning-bolt, if you will, as opposed to a diffuse flare, came in discharging contact with the Earth at the end of the Younger Dryas, and its impact site is still extant measurable today, what would it look like? Indeed, what physical effects on our planet’s surface, its global environment, and its magnetic field, might be expected if a highly concentrated, but disassociated solar magnetic field line, densely laden with charged and uncharged particles (which have been accelerated to near light speed) made a sustained contact with Earth?

The Al Jafr desert basin in Jordan, which is described as having a centripetal drainage pattern with stepped side walls, is a location on Earth identified during this project which appears to have physical artifacts, scorched signatures, consistent with electron-flows of known high-energy ESD impacts found in the environment and those routinely generated in the laboratory which are known as Lichtenberg figures.  So the question here may resemble the question, ‘” Which came first, the chicken, or the egg?” That is to say, did pluvial conditions form the centripetal drainage, or did the precipitation simply follow the channels cut down into the K/T boundary by the proposed electron flows radiating from the focus of the impact? Whereas the fractal geometry tree created by Earth impacting lightning-ESD burns its pattern about 5 or 10 meters radius across the surface from the point of impact, the visible topography of the proposed crater-like depression reveals an apparently similar Lichtenberg tree carved in the crust which has a 60 mile (~100 km) radius, that is a depression about 120 miles (200 km) in diameter. We will present theoretical argument subjectable to scientific measurement that there exists a form of solar magnetic field anomaly similar to planetary magnetic reconnection which, on rare occasion and while heavily laden with charged particles, makes a discharging impact with the Earth, thereby transferring the load of electrons , protons, and neutrons, in-a-sustained-contact until the charges dissipate.

Crustal seismic vibrations generated by such contact are suspected by this researcher to have provided a sufficient dynamic to drive the Earth’s plates in the Mediterranean region accelerating epeirogenesis, perhaps much as seismic actions cause localized liquefaction effects in some types of surface soils. As a general example of the dynamic, consider children’s games which remain static until a vibration moves game pieces about a playing surface; or, in manufacturing and heavy construction, where similar generated vibrations on a much larger scale are used to move stubborn aggregates. Widespread sustained downthrust vibratory forces from the theoretical EMD could provide additional kinetic action seemingly missing from the combined tectonic forces equation mentioned earlier in the Atlantis-Bakhu section, causing the proposed accelerated form of epeirogenesis. And, if the dynamic event was witnessed as it occurred, beginning first in the vicinity of local space occupied by planet Jupiter (Zeus, or the Eye of Ra?), then the origin of destruction lore from several Mediterranean cultures can be arguably directly attributable to a seemingly supernatural, though actually natural, solar event.

So, to begin this section, the questions we are asking relate to unique impact characteristics and attributes that can be associated with high-energy discharge phenomena. We want to know if the Earth has been impacted by a concentrated high-energy force that resulted in a discharging transfer of high-velocity electric and magnetic currents into the environs of the planet which then etched a scorched path around the surface forming a transverse plane penetrating to the opposite side of the sphere. An electric and magnetic discharge (EMD) on such a grand scale would leave evidence of the upheaval scattered all about the planet. We will present arguments and offer observations from our investigations that are measurable and, ultimately, scientifically plausible, even though at first given the solar scale the ideas may seem fictional.

In an effort to support an argument suggesting that the Earth may have been previously impacted by a large concentration of high-velocity charged particles, and to help substantiate the overall hypothesis, we will use satellite imagery, physical observations and laboratory generated electron Lichtenberg figures combined with unique and plausible explanations for anomalous kinetic and thermodynamic findings in geology.  It should be noted that the dense clusters of electrons, protons and neutrons are thought to have been associated with a strong rogue magnetic field, the source of which is unknown, but presumed to be extra-terrestrial in origin (i.e., beyond Earth’s own magneto-hydrodynamic) and solar in potential. First, we will focus on the proposed impact site shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1

Is the Al Jafr Basin of southern Jordan the remnant of an EMD Impact Site?

The large geologic formation called the Al Jafr Basin, located in southern Jordan, is currently considered to be representative of a rare or anomalous centripetal drainage system comprised of a series of wadis (extinct or ephemeral watercourse channels) that converge on the focus of the partial saucer-shaped depression. These wadis are thought to have been carved from the Cretaceous limestone bedrock during pluvial periods found punctuating the Pleistocene. Ascending from the central focus of the depression to the west, we encounter at least 5 expansive arcing steppes cut through by the wadis that lead up to a small plateau backed by a mountainous ridge (Fig. 2).

Figure 2

When following the arc of the ridge around the curved western wall of the basin, a circumscribed edge suggests the diameter of the overall depression is approximately 200 km (~125 miles) across. There appears at the central focus of the basin to be a clear zone nearly 35 km (~20 miles) in diameter around which a comma shaped area has formed where the radial wadis converge generally from the west (Fig. 3a).

Figure 3a

Alternatively, the features of the Al Jafr Basin can also be shown to have numerous physical characteristics consistent with patterns and artifacts associated with terrestrial lightning discharges and those generated in laboratory experiments where high-voltage electric discharges into an acrylic medium have preserved the diffusion of electrons known as a Lichtenberg figure (Fig. 3b).

Figure 3b

While these examples are much smaller in scale, they provide an excellent model from which to begin this investigation. A close inspection of the wadis uniformly descending through the western stepped-slopes of the Al Jafr Basin in the LandSat/Film composite image (Fig. 3a) reveal that the enormous radial coursing pathways are twisted or braided in places; this is a phenomenon which seems consistent with chaotic electrical current streamers, but is also generally consistent with the more familiar typical watercourse erosion. Therefore, it seems at least hypothetically possible, though admittedly unlikely given present assumptions in the study of solar activity, that these wadi valleys were initially formed by very large electron flows that had shocked and pulverized surface strata including bedrock which then later became natural drainage channels for precipitation.

A visual study of Figure 3b allows for the comparison of three images: the unique topography of Al Jafr Basin; a natural Lichtenberg figure from a lightning-strike scorched into the putting green of a golfing hole; and, from the laboratory, a controlled high-voltage electric discharge into an acrylic medium generating another Lichtenberg figure tree. Strong similarities can be seen between the wadis of Al Jafr Basin and both the natural electric streamers from Earth’s lightning and the electric discharge in the lab. When comparing the topography of this Jordanian basin to the known physical effects of the apparently chaotic electric discharge seen in the lab’s acrylic block, notice also, that on the east or right of both images there is arguably evidence of powerful vibration associated with the current flow during discharge physics. At Al Jafr Basin the irregular repeating hills ENE are consistent with the much smaller pattern seen in the acrylic and may indicate a cause/effect relationship with the intense vibration that would have accompanied the proposed chaotic EMD impact. Although these observations may at first seem comparatively extreme, by looking deeper we find several reasonable co-relationships that strengthen the hypothesis.

By closely examining Figure 3c, another peculiar surface impression can be seen at the proposed impact site that is located at nearly 90 degrees to the apparent radial electron transmission streamers and which is visually consistent with known densely concentrated magnetic energy (Birkeland current) observed leaving the surface of the Sun by the SOHO spacecraft.

Figure 3c

It is well known that the electric and magnetic components of electromagnetic energy are spatially arranged at right angles. So it follows here that if the centripetal wadi drainage of Al Jafr Basin was caused by electron diffusion as suggested, rather than simple water erosion, then the strange surface feature located at a right angle to the Lichtenberg figure could be evidence of a strong magnetic Birkeland current flow.

In our opinion, the visual characteristics of the Al Jafr Basin that resemble the lightning strike, the lab discharge, and solar magnetic Birkeland current, are actually evidencing varying intensities of the same natural processes whereby electric and magnetic energy are transferred violently. Admittedly, if the Al Jafr Basin is a chaotic EMD impact crater, then the sustained voltage discharge that caused it was immense and surely on a stellar level. We are currently unaware of any stable cosmic magnetic phenomenon that could be implicated in the generation of such energies. However, in speculation, a significantly destabilized or throbbing stellar MHD may be capable of concentrating highly-charged, braided and tubular, rogue magnetic field line segments that are detached from the parent by inordinately excited reconnection. Even under normal conditions, snapping planetary field lines during magnetic reconnection have been shown to rapidly accelerate electrons to speeds approaching light. Higher energies appear to be theoretically possible.